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Details pertaining to patient preparation are institution specific. At the authors’ institution, the authors instruct the patients to consume one bottle of magnesium citrate oral solution the evening before the examination. The magnesium citrate acts as a laxative, ensuring that subtle renal, ureteral, or bladder calcifications are not masked by abundant amounts of stool. In addition, the patient is instructed to not consume liquids or solids on the morning of
Nội dung chính
- Excretory urographyComputed tomographic urographyMagnetic resonance urographyWhich of the following procedures requires a contrast medium?Which of the following radiologic procedures requires the injection of a contrast medium into the renal pelvis via catheter placed within the ureter?Which of the following examinations require S catheterization of the ureters?What is the difference between IVP and IVU?
Recent laboratory values are screened prior to the procedure to ensure normal renal function, and a negative pregnancy test (as applicable) is obtained. A detailed list of medications and allergies is ascertained by the technologist prior to starting the procedure. The procedure is explained to the patient, and a consent form is signed. The patient is asked to void prior to commencing the study.
After reviewing the above information and determining that the procedure
is not contraindicated, a preliminary KUB radiograph is obtained (see the image below). The radiograph is performed on a standard 14×17-inch cassette centered the iliac crest and taken in full inspiration. For larger patients, the radiograph is centered the umbilicus. The preliminary radiograph is examined by the radiologist to ensure that the field of view is appropriate (the radiograph should encompass the suprarenal region to a level below the pubic symphysis). Additionally, the
radiologist should note the presence of any calcifications. Additional oblique radiographs may be required to localize and delineate suspected calcifications seen on the KUB radiograph.
Excretory urography imaging sequence: A plain KUB radiograph is first obtained to detect the presence of any calcifications.
If satisfied with the preliminary radiograph(s), a peripheral intravenous line is placed, through which the radiologist briskly injects two 50-mL syringes of Omnipaque 300. After injection of contrast, a cone down radiograph focused on the kidneys is obtained during full expiration the 1-minute mark (see the first image below). A subsequent full KUB of the abdomen is obtained 3 minutes. At this juncture, if abdominal compression is not contraindicated, the patient is placed
prone onto a compression paddle, with the top of the paddle situated just above the superior aspect of the iliac crests.
Excretory urography imaging sequence: At 1 minute, a cone down radiograph of the kidneys is obtained.
Excretory urography imaging sequence: At 3 minutes, a plain radiograph of the abdomen is obtained.
Abdominal compression allows better visualization of the renal collecting system, especially in situations in which low osmolar contrast is used. Once the compression device is placed, an additional
anteroposterior cone down radiograph of the kidneys and bilateral oblique radiographs are obtained (see the first 3 images below). The radiologist is shown the images, and if optimal opacification of the collecting systems is present, the compression paddle is released with a subsequent KUB obtained by the technologist (see the fourth image below). An additional cone down post-void radiograph of the bladder may be requested in the frontal and oblique projections (see final 3 images below).
Excretory urography imaging sequence: The patient is placed prone and a coned down image of the kidneys is obtained. A compression device is typically used unless it is contraindicated.
Excretory urography imaging sequence: Oblique radiographs of the abdomen are obtained with the patient in the prone position.
urography imaging sequence: Oblique radiographs of the abdomen are obtained with the patient in the prone position.
Excretory urography imaging sequence: A full KUB radiograph is obtained after release of the compression paddle with the patient in the prone position.
Excretory urography imaging sequence: A coned down radiograph of the bladder is obtained in the frontal projection.
imaging sequence: Oblique radiographs of the bladder are obtained.
Excretory urography imaging sequence: Oblique radiographs of the bladder are obtained.
A modification of the technique may be used in patients with suspected ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction. The patient is
specifically asked if he/she has an allergy to Lasix (Furosemide) prior to this portion of the procedure. If no history of an allergic reaction exists, 15-20 minutes after the initial contrast injection, 0.5 mg/kg of Lasix (up to 40 mg) is injected through the peripheral intravenous line. Subsequent KUB radiographs are obtained 5, 10, and 15 minutes after the administration of intravenous Lasix. UPJ pathology is suspected if the contrast fails to clear the collecting system the 10-minute
mark after injecting Lasix.
Excretory urography with Lasix: A plain radiograph of the abdomen is obtained prior to starting the procedure.
Excretory urography with Lasix: A 1-minute coned down radiograph of the kidneys is obtained. Note the relatively larger size of the left kidney.
Excretory urography with Lasix: An abdominal radiograph is obtained the 3-minute mark. Note the relatively decreased nephrogram in the
enlarged left kidney.
Excretory urography with Lasix: The patient is placed prone and an additional radiograph is obtained. The left renal pelvis is dilated with diffuse pelvocaliectasis.
Excretory urography with Lasix: A 5-minute post-Lasix radiograph is obtained. Contrast has almost cleared from the right collecting system but remains pooled within the pelvis and calyces of the left kidney.
Excretory urography with Lasix: A 10-minute post-Lasix radiograph demonstrates persistent but decreased dilatation of the left renal pelvis.
Excretory urography with Lasix: A 15-minute radiograph demonstrates persistent dilatation of the left renal pelvis. These findings are compatible with known history of left ureteropelvic obstruction.
Computed tomographic urography
Patients are encouraged to maintain good hydration prior to the CT examination to reduce the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy. After studying 176 patients in 2013, Weatherspoon et al concluded that oral hydration is more cost
effective and produced ureteral distention and opacification similar to IV techniques. 
Similar to EU, the patients answer a questionnaire prior to the examination, highlighting their medications and history of allergic reactions. All metal is removed from the area of interest (to reduce beam hardening artifact from metallic objects). Peripheral intravenous access is ensured prior to the commencement of the
examination. The patient is placed supine on the table with arms raised over the head.
A digital scout radiograph is obtained to ensure coverage from the diaphragm to the iliac crests. A non-contrast CT scan is obtained (see image below), scanning from the top of the kidneys through to the pubic symphysis using the following parameters:
Table 1. Noncontrast CT Parameters (Open Table in a new window)
15.7(increased to 25.4 the iliac crest)
CT urogram: Non-contrast axial computed tomographic (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis is routinely obtained as part of a CT urogram to look for underlying calculi.
Alternating the mA as the gantry rotates around the patient according to the shape and attenuation
characteristics of the patient obtained from the scout radiograph (ie, dose modulation) is used to decrease the radiation dose. In addition, the noise index is increased the level of the iliac crest in order to minimize the radiation dose to the gonads. The trade-off, inevitably, is poorer-quality images; however, the authors feel this is a reasonable compromise because the noncontrast scan is used to look for stones, which are still visible the higher noise index images.
subsequently inject 120 mL of intravenous contrast (or 85 mL if there is only one functioning kidney) via a peripheral intravenous line a rate of 2-3 mL/sec and image through only the kidneys after a 100-second delay (from the start of the bolus injection) to obtain a nephrographic phase of renal enhancement (see the image below). No oral contrast is administered. The parameters used are shown below.
Table 2. IV Contrast With 100-Second Delay CT
Parameters (Open Table in a new window)
IV contrast 100-second
delay (from start of bolus injection)
CT urogram: Nephrographic phase image of the kidney 70 seconds post contrast administration.
After this acquisition, a bolus of 200 mL of saline is administered. The patient is then asked to sit up for approximately 8 minutes (counting from initial bolus injection
of contrast) after which they are instructed to lie supine on the CT table with their arms over their head. A second digital scout radiograph spanning the diaphragms through to the pelvis is now obtained. The patient is then scanned from above the kidneys through the pubic symphysis to obtain a 10-minute delayed excretory image to opacity the ureters and bladder. Sagittal and coronal reformats are obtained from the axial imaging data, and 3D volumetric images are generated by the radiologist
a separate, dedicated 3D workstation (see the images below). The parameters used are shown below.
Table 3. IV Contrast With 10-Minute Delay CT Parameters (Open Table in a new window)
CT urogram: Excretory phase obtained 7 minutes following contrast administration. This phase is used to look for filling defects in the urinary collecting system.
CT urogram utilizing a split dose technique: Axial image through the kidneys and collecting systems demonstrates both nephrographic and excretory phases of enhancement in the same imaging sequence.
CT urogram utilizing a split dose technique: Axial images displayed with wider window settings are suitable for display of the opacified collecting systems and urinary tract calculi.
Example of 3D postprocessing work performed by the radiologist after the acquisition of the imaging data.
3D post-processing image created by the radiologist after the acquisition of the imaging data. The image has been obliqued to optimally visualize
the left distal ureter and left ureterovesicular junction.
3D post-processing image created by the radiologist after the acquisition of the imaging data. The image has been obliqued in order to optimally visualize the right distal ureter and right ureterovesicular junction.
that the noise index is increased in order to compensate from the increased dose brought on by using the thinner slices needed to accurately evaluate the collecting systems for subtle filling defects
An alternative technique that is typically used in patients younger than 40 years is referred to as the “split dose” technique. The premise of this technique is to administer a divided dose of iodinated contrast, with the subsequent CT acquisition timed so that a single contrast-enhanced
scan contains both the nephrographic and excretory phases of renal enhancement.
The initial imaging parameters are the same for both techniques: a scout radiograph and a noncontrast CT scan are obtained (using dose modulation and increasing the noise index the iliac crests to decrease the dose to the gonads). Subsequently, 75 mL of intravenous noniodonated contrast is injected via a peripheral line 2-3 mL/sec, which is followed by a 150 mL bolus of saline.
authors wait 8 minutes after the injection of contrast and then administer an additional 75 mL of noniodonated contrast 2-3 mL/sec followed by a 50 mL bolus of saline. No oral contrast is administered. After a 100-second delay, a CT scan is obtained from the top of the kidneys through to the pubic symphysis using the parameters shown below.
Table 4. IV Contrast Combined Nephrographic/Excretory CT Parameters (Open Table in a new window)
15.7 (increased to 25.4 the iliac crest)
Volume data, consisting of 0.625 mm slices as well as reformatted 3.75 mm slices, are provided by the technologist to the radiology console for interpretation. 3D volumetric images are subsequently generated by the radiologist a separate, dedicated 3D workstation.
Magnetic resonance urography
The challenge of MR urography is to obtain diagnostic quality images of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder within a reasonable time frame, while taking
into account the effects of respiratory motion, ureteral peristalsis, and flowing urine. 
Early MR urography relied on T2-weighted techniques to take advantage of the high signal intensity of the urine in the collecting systems, ureters, and bladder. An obvious advantage to this technique is that images can be obtained in any plane and the images can be obtained relatively quickly. However, this technique is limited
to use in patients with distended urinary collecting systems. Additional interventions may be introduced to optimize the examination, such as intravenous hydration, ureteral compression, and intravenous diuretics.
Excretory MR urography, on the other hand, is similar to CT and conventional excretory urography. A gadolinium-based contrast agent is administered intravenously, and the collecting systems are then imaged during the excretory phase. Generally, to avoid T2 effects of concentrated
contrast in the urine, low-dose gadolinium-based contrast is administered.  Again, intravenous diuretics may be administered to optimize the examination.  The primary imaging sequence is a 3D gradient-echo, generally with fat suppression. Motion suppression is best achieved with breath-hold acquistions, as opposed to respiratory triggering. 
Ultimately, most modern MR urographic studies combine T1- and T2-weighted sequences in the axial and coronal planes. Importantly, contrast administration should not occur until after the T2-weighted sequences are obtained, because the gadolinium-based contrast agent causes decreased signal on T2-weighted sequences. At our institution, the initial set of T2-weighted images are reviewed by the radiologist to evaluate for an
underlying obstruction. If no obstruction is present, intravenous Lasix (furosemide) is administered to optimize excretion. Comprehensive examinations may take 30-60 minutes, with more tailored examinations taking 15-30 minutes. We routinely obtain our postcontrast images 3 minutes and 7-10 minutes. Images 3 minutes are obtained in both the axial and coronal planes, while the remaining contrast-enhanced images are obtained in the coronal plane (see the images below). A radiologist is
present to monitor the case for quality assurance.
CT urogram: Axial image obtained in the excretory phase demonstrates a small filling defect in the distal right ureter in this patient with hematuria. Biopsy confirmed the presence of right ureteral transitional cell carcinoma.
CT urogram: Coronal reconstruction demonstrates an elongated filling defect in the distal right ureter. Biopsy revealed the presence of a transitional cell carcinoma.
Retrograde ureterogram: Fluoroscopic spot image obtained during ureteral biopsy demonstrates an elongated stricture of the distal right ureter corresponding to the filling defect on the CT urogram. Biopsy confirmed a transitional cell carcinoma.
Medullary sponge kidney: CT urogram in the excretory phase demonstrates thin linear striations of contrast outlining the papillae of the upper right kidney, compatible with a history of medullary sponge kidney.
Medullary sponge kidney: CT urogram in the excretory phase demonstrates thin linear striations of accumulated contrast within the papillae of both kidneys, more prominent on the right.
MR urogram: Coronal T2 weighted image of the abdomen demonstrates right-sided hydronephrosis. Note the atrophic upper pole of the right kidney.
MR urogram: Coronal T1 fat saturation (FS) post contrast image of the abdomen 3 minutes after contrast
administration demonstrates prompt enhancement of the kidneys except for the upper pole of the right kidney which is atrophic and nonfunctioning secondary to long-standing reflux.
MR urogram: 3D maximum intensity projection image in the coronal plane demonstrates a duplicated left collecting system
with normal excretion in the bladder. Hydronephrosis is noted in the lower pole moiety of a right-sided duplicated system, while the upper pole demonstrates no excretion secondary to chronic reflux nephropathy. A round intraluminal filling defect in the right side of bladder is compatible with a ureterocele from the distal ureter of the right upper pole moiety.
MR urogram: 3D maximum intensity projection image in the coronal plane demonstrates a duplicated left collecting system with normal excretion into the bladder. Hydroureteronephrosis is noted within the lower pole moiety of a right-sided duplicated system, while the upper pole demonstrates no excretion secondary to chronic reflux
nephropathy. The lower pole moiety of the right kidney is obstructed by an ureterocele of the upper pole moiety’s distal ureter.
Which of the following procedures requires a contrast medium?
You might need contrast when you are having an X-ray, CT, MRI, or ultrasound exam. It can be an iodine-based material, barium-sulfate, gadolinium, or saline and air mixture that can be swallowed or injected intravenously.
Which of the following radiologic procedures requires the injection of a contrast medium into the renal pelvis via catheter placed within the ureter?
Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) is an x-ray exam that uses an injection of contrast material to evaluate your kidneys, ureters and bladder and help diagnose blood in the urine or pain in your side or lower back.
Which of the following examinations require S catheterization of the ureters?
Retrograde urography requires ureteral catheterization so that a contrast medium can be introduced directly into the pelvicalyceal system.
What is the difference between IVP and IVU?
An intravenous urogram (IVU) is a test that looks the whole of your urinary system. It’s sometimes called an intravenous pyelogram (IVP). It looks the: kidneys.
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